But as important as the new sanctions are, they will have little or no effect unless China fully complies with them and starts playing a much more active role in pressuring Pyongyang to cease its WMD programs and belligerent behavior.

The new UN sanctions reportedly will cost North Korean an estimated $1 billion – a third of its export earnings – mostly by filling loopholes in UN sanctions imposed last November that only put caps on iron ore and coal sales to China. The new sanctions outright ban iron ore, coal, lead and seafood exports from North Korea and increase banking sanctions as well as sanctions on North Korean persons and entities.